Stage 8: Functional tactics

During the previous stage management took their time to formulate exactly WHAT must be done WHEN and at what STANDARD to complete the journey successfully. The stretch from the previous stop was very exciting and they cannot wait to commence with the very important work that must be done during the next stage – functional tactics.

During this stage the information gathered in Stage 3 must be used to determine whether adequate resources are available to carry out the actions of the journey. They will also be able to determine whether the short-term objectives and actions will generate the desired results to complete the journey successfully. If not, they will have to take a road back to Goals, Strategies or to Objectives and Actions where they will have go back to the drawing board for improvements to the current plans.

They will have to decide if the farming business needs possible restructuring, refocusing (paradigm shift) or re-engineering to complete the rest of the journey successfully.

Functional tactics are the key activities that have to be executed in each functional area – human resources, production, financial, marketing, product research and development – so that the farming business’s products can be produced and marketed. Functional tactics are furthermore necessary to execute the main strategies.

This approach will save time and money because the following three stages (9-11) are then focussed on a plan that has the potential to generate the desired results. When management engage in traditional planning, they usually commence with this stage.


This stage is also used by third-year students at the Centre for Agricultural Management in the service-learning component of the B. Agric. degree.

The following tactics are used to provide different plans to emerging farmers engaged in the service-learning programme:

• financial tactics;
• production tactics;
• marketing tactics;
• product research and product development tactics; and
• human resource development tactics.

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